The situation in the Sahel is growing increasingly dire. Despite the introduction and presence of the Russian private military contractor (PMC) Wagner Group, there has not been any discernible improvement to the internal security climate in Mali. One can contrast this situation with that in Niger, where there has been no substantial increase in reported attacks by militants, though this cannot be said for neighboring Burkina Faso, with whom Mali also shares a large border.
Part of the problem is that the EU and others involved in Mali and Niger are "turning a blind eye" on human rights abuses. But it is established since earlier that people join radical, terrorist and militant groups when they feel abused, neglected and under threat. https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/analysis/2021/11/30/how-Niger-foreign-funded-army-derail-its-anti-jihadist-fight?utm_source=The+New+Humanitarian&utm_campaign=a4a0498f41-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2021_12_03_Weekly&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_d842d98289-a4a0498f41-75672746